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Typha domingensis Pers.
TYPHACEAE
Synonomy
Common Name: Typha, Bulrush, Bullrush, Cumbungi
Aboriginal Language Names: Jaminjung, Ngaliwurru, Nungali: Minirrminirr (Jam, Ngal, Nung)Jaru: no Jaru nameMalakMalak, Matngala: Parmorrmot (Mal), Karang (Mat).Mangarrayi, Yangman: Yangarla (Mang)Ngarinyman: BuwumbuwaPitjantjatjara: *apita, tjintjira, tjuna-tjuna (Latz 1995)Wagiman: no Wagiman nameWestern Arrernte: ingkwe (Latz 1995)
* indicates uncertain
Description: Flowering stems c. 2-3 m tall. Leaves green or yellowish green; sheath of upper leaves not auriculate or only the upper 1 or 2 leaves auriculate; lamina to c. 2 m long, 0.5-1.5 cm wide. Male and female inflorescences commonly separated by 1.5-8 cm but sometimes contiguous. Male inflorescences 11-38 cm long, 0.8-1.2 cm diam. Pollen shed as single grains. Female inflorescences 8.5-26 cm long, 0.6-2 cm diam., cinnamon-brown; floral bracts abundant, broadly spathulate, commonly 4-8 cells across its width. Stigma linear and often longitudinally folded.
Similar Taxa: Typha orientalis.
Leaves & flowers &/or fruit
Image: M. Osterkamp
Notes: Wightman et al. (1992b) recorded that the Mangarrayi people of the Elsey area pull the white roots from the mud and eat them raw. The Rirratjingu people from Yirrkala, Arnhem Land, sometimes use the stems to make toy spears for their children (Yunupingu et al., 1995). A single specimen, Latz 13439, has contiguous male and female inflorescences.

Distribution

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Introduced Status: Native to NT
Distribution Notes: Occurs in all Australian States and Territories and in NT ranges from the MacDonnell Ranges to the Top End where it is found in localities such as Cobourg Peninsula, Elsey Park, Flora River, Fogg Dam, Holmes Jungle and near Howard River.
Bioregion: Arnhem Coast, Burt Plain, Central Arnhem, Central Kimberley, Central Ranges, Channel Country, Daly Basin, Darwin Coastal, Finke, Great Sandy Desert, Gulf Coastal, Gulf Fall and Uplands, MacDonnell Ranges, Mitchell Grass Downs, Mount Isa Inlier, Ord Victoria Plain, Riverina, Simpson Strzelecki Dunefields, South Eastern Highlands, Stony Plains, Sturt Plateau, Tanami, Tiwi Cobourg, Victoria Bonaparte
International: A worldwide species of freshwater swamps and streams.

Habitat: From creeks and waterholes. Uncommon on floodplains, preferring springs and waterways with relatively stable water levels. Has some salinity tolerance.

Ecological Attributes

Flowering: all months
Fruiting: all months

Other Attributes

Conservation Status (TPWCA): Least Concern
Restricted Range Taxon: N
NT Parks: Charles Darwin National Park, Elsey National Park, Finke Gorge National Park, Garig Gunak Barlu National Park, Giwining / Flora River Nature Park, Howard Springs Hunting Reserve, Judbarra / Gregory National Park, Kakadu National Park, Keep River National Park, Limmen National Park, Tjoritja / West MacDonnell National Park, Watarrka National Park
Flora Description Source: Floodplain Flora - A flora of the coastal floodplains of the Northern Territory, Australia
Taxonomic Literature: Cowie, I.D., Short, P.S., and Osterkamp Madsen, M., 2011, Floodplain Flora: A flora of the coastal floodplains of the Northern Territory, Australia. Northern Territory Herbarium, Department of Natural Resources, Environment, the Arts and Sport, pp 327, 329.

Ethnobotany

Pitjantjatjara: Food: Fruit flesh, Gum, Others, Plant foods for animals; Material and Culture: Others, Shade or shelter, Toys; Weapons and Implements: Fish-poisons and traps. Western Arrernte: Material and Culture: Shade or shelter.
Ethnobotany Source: Latz, P.K. 1995

Flora Source:

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