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Glossary

A

A.C.T.:

Australian Capital Territory.

abaxial:

away from the axis from which it arises, e.g. leaf surface or floral organ (cf. adaxial).

accrescent:

continuing to increase in size after maturity.

achene:

a dry, but not woody, indehiscent, single-seeded fruit.

acicular:

needle-like; narrow, stiff and pointed.

acroscopic:

pointing towards the apex.

actinomorphic:

radially symmetrical, especially of corolla.

acuminate:

tapering gradually or abruptly to a sharp point, the sides of the apex slightly concave.

acute:

pointed; with the apex forming a sharp angle.

adaxial:

nearest to the axis from which it arises, e.g. leaf surface or floral organ (cf. abaxial).

adnate:

fusion of dissimilar organs, e.g. of stamens to petals.

adpressed:

pressed closely against; appressed.

adventitious:

of roots arising from other than the normal root system.

aerenchyma:

spongy, air filled tissue present in some plants, e.g. water plants such as Nymphaea and Sesbania.

aerophores:

a localised outgrowth.

alternate:

with one at each node at different parts of the stem.

amplexicaul:

clasping the stem.

anatropous:

inverted, of an ovule which has become inverted during development with the funiculus fused along one side and the micropyle close to the placental surface as is the normal state in plants.

androecium:

stamens; pollen-bearing organs of a flower.

androgynoecium:

in a flower a stalk or column bearing both the androecium (stamens) and gynoecium (seed-bearing organ) above the perianth.

andromonoecious:

having bisexual flowers and male flowers present on same plant.

androphore:

a stalk or column bearing the androecium of a flower.

anisophyllous:

with leaves unequal in size and shape at any given point on a branch.

annual:

completing life-cycle within one year.

annular:

ring-like or arranged in a ring.

annulus:

the elastic ring of cells in a sporangium which initiates dehiscence.

anther:

organ in which pollen is produced.

antheridium:

pl. antheridia; in algae and lower plants, the sperm-bearing organ.

antherode:

the non-functional anther of a staminode.

anthesis:

flowering time; opening of flower to enable pollination.

anthocarp:

false fruit consisting of the true fruit and the base of the perianth.

antrorse:

pointing forwards or upwards, usually referring to hairs (cf. retrorse).

apetalous:

without petals.

apical meristem:

the growing region of a plant in which cells that have retained their embryonic characteristics, or have reverted to them secondarily, divide to produce more cells that elongate the shoot.

apical placentation:

of ovules attached to the apex of an ovary.

apiculate:

tipped with a small sharp flexible point.

apocarp:

mature carpel of an apocarpous gynoecium.

apocarpous:

(of a pistil or gynoecium) consisting of one carpel as in Grevillea and the legumes, or of several carpels each free and distinct as in Annonaceae and Dilleniaceae.

apomictic:

asexual reproduction, reproducing without fertilisation.

appendage:

an outgrowth from any organ.

appressed:

pressed closely against; adpressed.

arachnoid:

covered with long, loosely entangled hairs; cobwebby.

arborescent:

tree-like.

areole:

a space enclosed by veins of a reticulum, as for example in some species of Adiantaceae.

aril:

a fleshy appendage to a seed; sometimes applied only to those which enclose the seed or are persistent, hence arillate.

aristate:

terminating with a long, fine point, often bristle-like.

Arnhem Land:

land belonging to the Arnhem Land Aboriginal Land Trust, broadly that part of the Northern Territory north of 14° S and east of 133° E. Kakadu NP lies on the northwest boundary of Arnhem Land.

Arnhem Land Plateau:

the dissected sandstone plateau of Arnhem Land that rises 200–300 m above the adjacent plains. The western edge of the plateau extends into Kakadu N.P. and includes outliers such as Nourlangie Rock.

article:

a segment of a transversely jointed fruit (or stem), with separation occurring naturally at the joints.

articulate:

with joints where parts may separate naturally.

attenuate:

tapering gradually.

auct. non:

abbreviation of auctorum non [Latin], not of author; used to show that the preceding name has been misapplied by some authors and is not used in the sense described by the original author.

auricle:

an ear-like lobe, commonly at the base of a leaf or petal, adj. auriculate.

autogamous:

fertilisation within the same flower.

axil:

the angle formed between a leaf and a branch, hence axillary.

axile placentation:

of ovules attached to the central axis of a plurilocular ovary.

B

basal placentation:

of ovules attached to the base of the ovary.

basicopic:

pointing towards the base.

basifixed:

attached at or by the base.

basiscopic:

pointing toward the base.

berry:

a simple fruit having a pulpy or fleshy ovary wall, often many-seeded as in a tomato.

biconvex:

convex on both faces.

bifid:

two-lobed, divided for about half the length.

bilabiate:

two-lipped.

bipinnate:

of compound leaves, where they are twice divided or with two orders of division.

bisexual:

of flowers possessing functional pistils and stamens.

bisporangiate:

of an anther with two sporangia (pollen sacs), these positioned so they are adjacent for most of their length.

biternate:

of a trifoliate leaf when each leaflet is divided again into three segments.

boss:

as used in the Dilleniaceae treatment, the hairless base of a modified scale or the base of a stellate hair.

bract:

a modified leaf differing in size, shape or colour from the foliage leaves, usually smaller and associated with the inflorescence or flower, hence bracteate.

bracteole:

bracts associated with the pedicel of the flower.

bullate:

having a blistered or puckered surface.

C

c.:

circa [Latin] about, approximately.

cactiform:

as used in the Dilleniaceae treatment, and referring to broad-based stellate hairs in which the branches of the hair are very short.

caducous:

falling off very early.

caespitose:

growing in tufts or patches.

callus:

pl. calli; a thickened, raised area of somewhat hardened tissue, in some grasses a pointed or blunt structure that develops above the point of disarticulation of the spikelet or floret.

calyx:

outer whorl of a flower with a double perianth.

campanulate:

bell-shaped.

campylotropous:

of an ovule, orientated transversely and with a curved embryo sac.

canaliculate:

longitudinally grooved or channelled.

capitate:

clustered, compact and rounded, e.g. of flowers in an inflorescence.

capitulum:

pl. capitula; a head. Formed from sessile flowers clustered together.

capsule:

a dry fruit consisting of two or more fused carpels dehiscing either by valves or by pores.

carpel:

part of an ovary or fruit; an organ with the ovary at the base and style and stigma at the top. Several may make up a pistil.

carpophore:

a stalk or column bearing the carpels of a flower above the point of attachment of the calyx and corolla.

cartilaginous:

tough but flexible.

caruncle:

an outgrowth of the seed coat forming a fleshy appendage at or about the hilum of a seed (cf. aril).

caryopsis:

the fruit of a grass.

cataphyll:

a rudimentary leaf concerned with storage or protection. (In Cycas the scale like, often sharply pungent, leaves protecting the apical meristem).

caudate:

having a tail-like extension.

caudiciform:

having a manifestly swollen trunk or roots.

cauliflorous:

bearing inflorescences directly on older branches or trunk.

cauline:

of leaves born on an aerial stem.

cf.:

confer [Latin], compare.

chartaceous:

having a papery texture.

chasmogamous:

open pollinated flowers in which the perianth opens normally (cf. cleistogamous).

ciliate:

with a row of evenly spaced hairs on the margin.

ciliolate:

minutely ciliate.

circinate:

coiled.

circumscissile:

opening by a transverse annular split around the circumference.

circumtropical:

occurring around the tropics; pantropical.

clathrate:

lattice-like, like a trellis.

clavate:

club-shaped.

claw:

the narrowed petiole-like base of some petals or sepals (cf. limb).

cleistogamous:

small, self-pollinated flowers which do not open (cf. chasmogamous).

climber:

a plant rooted in the ground but supported by other plants.

cm:

centimetre(s).

coccus:

pl. cocci; a lobe or segment of a fruit.

cohering:

of like parts in close contact but not fused.

colleter:

a minute, multicellular, glandular appendage that secretes a viscid substance.

colliculate:

covered with small rounded projections.

column:

a fusion of the stamens into a tube, or fusion of the stamens and style into a solid body (cf. androphore).

commissural surface:

the face of a mericarp where it adjoins another.

compound:

composed of several distinct parts, although sometimes reduced, as of a leaf.

concertinaed:

folded backwards and forwards transversely, like the folds in a concertina.

concolorous:

of similar colour, as in the two surfaces of a leaf.

conduplicate:

folded together lengthwise.

condyle:

a ventral intrusion into the seed cavity around which the seed is curved.

confluent:

merging or blending together.

conical:

cone-shaped.

connate:

of similar parts so united they can only be separated by tearing.

connective:

tissue joining the locules of an anther to one another.

connivent:

coming into contact, but not united.

conspecific:

belonging to the same species.

contiguous:

touching but not joined.

contraligule:

an extension of the apex of the leaf sheath on the opposite side of the stem to the leaf, as in some species of Scleria.

convolute:

arrangement of perianth segments in bud in which each segment has one edge overlapping the adjacent segment.

cordate:

heart-shaped in outline, e.g. strongly lobed leaf bases.

cordiform:

of a solid body, shaped like a heart.

coriaceous:

leathery.

corm:

an enlarged underground stem in which food is stored (cf. tuber).

corolla:

the inner whorl of a perianth, made up of petals, usually conspicuous and showy.

corona:

a ring of tissue arising from the corolla, perianth or filaments of a flower and standing between the perianth lobes and the stamens.

corymb:

a flat-topped inflorescence, hence corymbose.

costa:

pl. costae; (mid)rib.

costapalmate:

of a palm leaf with the petiole extended into the blade as a distinct midrib.

cotyledon:

primary leaf (or one of two or more primary leaves) of an embryo.

cotyledons, ruminate:

with a number of intrusions of the testa into each cotyledon, not only between the faces of the cotyledons.

crenate:

of a margin with obtuse or rounded teeth; scalloped.

crenulate:

finely crenate.

crisped:

of hairs that are curled, kinked or wrinkled.

crustaceous:

dry and brittle.

cuboidal:

approaching the form of a cube.

culm:

the stem of a grass.

cuneate:

tapering gradually and evenly; wedge-shaped.

cupule:

cup-like. (adj. cupular)

cupuliform:

near hemispherical, shaped like a cupola (dome).

cyathium:

an inflorescence of unisexual flowers surrounded by a cupular involucre, as in Euphorbia.

cyme:

a determinate inflorescence with subsequent growth of one or two lateral buds which in turn terminate growth in these branches, the whole process repeated; hence cymose.

cymule:

a few-flowered unit forming part of a compound cymose inflorescence.

cypsela:

a dry, indehiscent, single-seeded fruit derived from an inferior, bicarpellate ovary. Found in the Asteraceae.

cystolith:

outgrowths of the cell wall impregnated with calcium carbonate.

D

D.R.:

Darwin Region.

decompound:

having various compound divisions; in leaves where the petiole bears secondary petioles; in sedges where the primary rays of the inflorescence bear secondary rays.

decumbent:

of branches lying on the ground but with the apex ascending.

decurrent:

extending downwards and adnate to the adjoining part, e.g. a stipule extending downwards to form a flange along the stem.

decussate:

in opposite pairs with successive pairs rotated at 90 degrees to each other, thus forming four rows.

deflexed:

bent downwards.

dehiscent:

splitting open at maturity to release the contents.

deltoid:

approaching the shape of a triangle with sides of similar length.

dendritic:

tree-like in shape (in reference to hairs).

dentate:

with pointed teeth that are perpendicular to the margin.

denticle:

a small tooth.

denticulate:

finely dentate.

determinate inflorescence:

one in which the axis is terminated by an apical flower (cf. indeterminate inflorescence).

dichasium:

pl. dichasia; a cymose inflorescence with opposite branching below the flower that terminates each axis (adj. dichasial).

dichotomous:

forking symmetrically into two branches.

dictyostele:

a stele with large overlapping leaf gaps.

digitate:

radiating from a common point, like the fingers of an open hand.

digitately trifoliolate:

of a compound leaf with three leaflets arising from the same point on the rachis.

dimidiate:

divided through the middle or appearing so.

dimorphic:

having two forms.

dioecious:

having male and female reproductive structures on separate plants.

diploid:

having two basic sets of chromosomes in the nucleus.

disarticulating:

of spikelets, with rachilla falling apart at joints above the glumes.

disc:

a band of tissue located beneath a superior ovary, on top of an inferior ovary or lining the floral tube, often thickened or nectar-secreting.

discoid/discoidal:

disc-shaped.

discolorous:

of differing colours, e.g. of leaves having the two surfaces different colours.

dissepiment:

a partition or septum, as in an ovary or fruit.

distal:

remote from the place of origin or attachment.

distant:

well-spaced.

distichous:

of leaves arranged one above the other on the axis to form two rows.

distyly:

a genetically controlled floral polymorphism in which a species has two floral morphs (pin flowers and thrum flowers) which differ reciprocally in the length of the style and stamens; hence species may be described as being distylous or as having distylous flowers (cf. homostylous).

dithecal:

of an anther which at maturity form two pollen sacs (theca); as in tetrasporangiate anthers in which each pair of sporangia share a common region of dehiscence.

ditypic:

two species in the one genus.

divaricate:

spreading or diverging widely.

DNA:

abbreviation for the Northern Territory Herbarium (Darwin) and used in Index Herbariorum, a recognised worldwide listing of herbaria. More widely recognised as the acronym for deoxyribose nucleic acid.

domatium:

pl. domatia; a pit or hollow (often containing tufts of hairs) in the axils of veins on the undersurface of a leaf.

dorsifixed:

affixed by the dorsal surface or back.

dorsiventral:

with dissimilar dorsal and ventral surfaces, e.g. differing in colour or vestiture.

E

e.g.:

exempli gratia [Latin], for example.

eccentric:

not centred, off-centre.

echinate:

spiny.

eglandular:

without glands.

eligulate:

without a ligule.

ellipsoid:

a solid body with an elliptic section or outline.

elliptic:

oval in outline, widest at the centre.

emarginate:

notched at the apex.

embryo:

the young plant in a seed or archegonium.

emergent:

half uncovered, with vegetative parts emerging from water or floating at the water surface.

endosperm:

nutritive tissue surrounding the embryo in some seeds, derived from the primary endosperm cell.

enucleate :

lacking a nucleus.

epicalyx:

an often calyx-like whorl of bracts arising close below the true calyx, e.g. in Malvaceae.

epigynous:

arising above the level of the ovary (cf. hypogynous, perigynous).

epipetalous:

of organs inserted upon the petals.

equitant:

of distichous leaves folded longitudinally and overlapping or astride at their bases.

erose:

of a margin, finely and irregularly eroded or incised.

et al.:

et alii [Latin], and others

excurrent:

extending beyond the margin or tip, e.g. a midvein which develops into an awn or mucro.

exine:

usually the outer wall of a pollen grain or spore but if a perine is present (as in the spores of some ferns) it is the second layer.

exserted:

protruding.

extrorse:

opening outwards (of anthers).

F

f.:

forma [Latin], form.

falcate:

sickle-shaped.

fascicle:

a cluster or bundle. (adj. fasciculate)

fenestrate:

perforated by small openings.

ferruginous:

rust-coloured, red-brown.

fig.:

figure.

filament:

stalk of stamen.

filiform:

thread-like.

fimbriate:

fringed.

fimbrillate:

minutely fringed.

flaccid:

limp.

flexuose:

zig-zagging, often referring to a stem.

floccose:

covered with tufts of soft woolly hairs that tend to rub off.

floret:

in some taxa the term used for an individual flower. In grasses the flower consists of opposing outer and inner bracts (lemma and palea), and 2 or 3 small scales together enclosing the androecium and gynoecium.

foliaceous:

leaf-like.

follicle:

a dry fruit, dehiscing along one suture and derived from a unicarpellate, unilocular ovary.

foveate:

pitted.

foveolate:

minutely pitted.

foveoles:

small pits

free:

not fused.

free-central placentation:

of ovules arranged around a central column.

frond:

a leaf or leaf-like structure, applied to ferns, Lemnaceae and palms.

fruit:

the seed-bearing structure in flowering plants which forms from the ovary and contains one or more seed.

funicle:

the stalk of an ovule or seed.

fusiform:

cigar- or spindle-shaped, narrower at both ends than at the centre.

G

g:

gram.

gametophyte:

a plant or generation that bears gametes formed during the sexual reproduction cycle (cf. sporophyte).

gamopetalous:

of petals partly or wholly fused.

gamophyllous:

of perianth members or sepals partly or wholly fused.

GBDBG:

George Brown Darwin Botanic Gardens.

geniculate:

with an abrupt, knee-like bend.

geocarpic:

producing ripe fruits underground. In Ficus referring to the lax branchlets produced at the base of the trunk which produce syconia; the branchlets run along the soil surface and may produce roots at the nodes as they are often covered by fallen leaf litter.

gibbous (gibbose):

swollen or pouched.

glabrate:

becoming glabrous with age or nearly glabrous; glabrescent.

glabrescent:

glabrate.

glabrous:

without hairs.

glaucous:

covered with a whitish bloom, giving a blue-green appearance.

globose:

spherical.

glomerate:

in a dense, compact cluster or clusters.

glomerule:

a compound head, as in the Asteraceae, i.e. when individual heads (capitula) are aggregated into dense clusters.

glume:

in grasses, a bract subtending a floret or florets; in sedges, an outer bract subtending bristles, inner bracts, the androecium and the gynoecium.

gourd:

a berry with a hard or leathery rind, as in Cucurbitaceae.

gynandrous:

with androecium and gynoecium fused into a single structure.

gynobasic:

of a style, arising at the base of an invaginated ovary, as in Lamiaceae and Boraginaceae.

gynoecium:

seed-bearing organ or organs of the flower.

gynophore:

a stalk bearing the gynoecium of a flower.

gynostegium:

in Aristolochiaceae a structure formed by the fusion of the stamens and gynoecium.

H

half-inferior:

of an ovary where the perianth arises from halfway up (cf. inferior, superior).

haploid:

having a single set of chromosomes in the nucleus.

hastate:

shaped like an arrowhead, the acute basal lobes directed outwards at 180° to each other.

haustoria:

an absorbing organ through which a parasite obtains chemical substances from its host.

head:

a short, compact inflorescence of sessile or nearly sessile flowers; capitulum.

helicoid:

branching repeatedly on the same side.

hemi-epiphytic:

plants that start life as epiphytes but eventually, by the production of aerial roots and their subsequent growth, become terrestrial, e.g. as in some spp. of fig.

hemi-saprophytic:

plant obtaining nutrients from dead organic matter and also from photosynthesis.

heterophyllous:

having leaves of differing form in individuals of the same species.

heterosporous:

a plant that produces two types of spore, male (microspores) and female (megaspores).

heterostylous:

having styles of differing lengths in individuals of the same species (with the stamens correspondingly of different length or position).

hilum:

the scar on a seed coat where the funicle has separated from the seed.

hirsute:

bearing coarse, longish hairs.

hispid:

with stiff, bristly hairs.

hispidulous:

with short stiff, bristly hairs.

hoary:

with a short dense indumentum giving a greyish appearance.

holosaprophytic:

plant obtaining nutrients solely from dead organic matter.

homosporous:

a plant that produces only one type of spore which on germination develops into a gametophyte which produces both male and female gametes.

homostylous:

monomorphic flowers in which the stamens and styles are of the same length (cf. distyly).

hyaline:

translucent, thin.

hydathodes:

water- or mineral-excreting pores occurring at the ends of veins.

hypanthium:

a cup-like receptacle bearing sepals, petals, stamens and ovary.

hypogynous:

arising from below the ovary.

I

i.e.:

id est [Latin], that is.

imbricate:

overlapping.

imparipinnate:

of compound leaves having an odd terminal leaflet.

in litt.:

in litteris [Latin], in correspondence.

indehiscent:

not opening at maturity.

indeterminate inflorescence:

one in which the apex is not terminated by an apical flower and growth can continue theoretically indefinitely (cf. determinate inflorescence).

indumentum:

the entire covering of hairs or other trichomes.

induplicate:

of a leaf blade with the margins folded inwardly at the points of contact.

indurate:

hardened.

indusium:

pl. indusia; in Goodeniaceae, a hollow cup-like structure fringed with hairs in which the stigmatic surface is located.

ined.:

ineditus [Latin], unpublished.

inferior:

of an ovary, with perianth inserted above the ovary (cf. half-inferior, superior).

inflexed:

bent inwards.

inflorescence:

a collective term for an aggregation of flowers.

infructescence:

the grouping in which fruits are borne on a plant.

internode:

the part of a stem between two nodes.

introrse:

of anthers, dehiscing towards the centre of the flower.

involute:

rolled inwards, as in a leaf where the margins are rolled towards the adaxial surface.

isodiametric:

with equal vertical and horizontal diameters.

isophyllous:

with leaves equal in size and shape at any given point on a branch.

K

keel:

of a flower of the Fabaceae, the lower petals which are more or less united along the lower margin; also a ridge along a fold such as in the glume of a grass spikelet.

kg:

kilogram.

Kimberley region:

in general terms, that part of Western Australia lying north of 19° S.

L

lacerate:

irregularly divided by deep incisions.

laciniate:

appearing cut into narrow pointed or ribbon-like segments.

lacunae:

air-spaces in tissue, e.g. as in the stems of Lindernia and Myriophyllum.

lamella:

pl. lamellae; a thin plate of tissue.

lamina:

leaf-blade.

lanate:

cobwebbed or tangled.

lanuginose:

with a dense cover of long, soft hairs; woolly.

laterite:

a somewhat hard, iron-rich, rock-like soil layer formed by heavy leaching of soil under markedly seasonal tropical conditions.

latex:

the milky juice of certain plants, e.g. fig.

latrorse:

of anthers, opening laterally, i.e. towards adjacent anthers.

leaf blade:

lamina; the usually broad, flattened part of a leaf.

legume:

a member of Caesalpiniaceae, Fabaceae or Mimosaceae; the fruit of most members of these families (i.e. a pod).

lemma:

in the florets of grasses, the bract lying below and opposing the palea and with it enclosing the androecium and gynoecium.

lenticel:

raised spongy areas found on the bark of some trees which allow gaseous exchange, hence lenticelled.

lenticular:

biconvex; lens-like.

lepidote:

covered with scales.

liana:

pl. lianes; a woody perennial vine.

ligulate:

strap-shaped.

ligule:

in grasses and sedges, a membranous or ciliate structure at the junction of the leaf sheath and leaf blade.

limb:

the broad expanded part of a petal, where the base is somewhat abruptly narrowed (clawed) or connate.

linear:

long and narrow with more or less parallel sides.

lithophytic:

growing on rock.

loculicidal:

of a mature capsule splitting along its outer locule wall.

loculus:

pl. loculi; a locule; a chamber or cavity such as those bearing ovules, or pollen.

lodicules:

in the florets of grasses, the small scales outside the stamens.

M

m:

metre(s).

Ma:

million years ago.

Malesia:

part of SE Asia, comprising Indonesia, Malaysia, Singapore, Brunei, the Philippines and Papua New Guinea.

marcescent:

withering but not falling off.

marginal placentation:

of ovules attached to the margin of an ovary, e.g. as in legumes.

medifixed:

attached near the middle.

megaspores:

a spore that gives rise to a female gametophyte and the larger of the two types of spores in a heterosporous plant.

megasporocarp:

a receptacle containing megaspores (the meiospore of vascular plants which gives rise to a female gametophyte).

megasporophyll:

a specialised leaf upon which one or more megasporangia are born (in Cycas usually referring to what is considered the ‘female’ reproductive structure).

membranous:

thin and translucent.

mericarp:

a one-seeded, usually indehiscent carpel separating from a schizocarp as in fruit of Myriophyllum.

micropyle:

a small canal through the integument(s) (coverings) of an ovule, persisting as a pore in the seed coat.

microspores:

a spore that gives rise to a male gametophyte and the smaller of the two types of spores in a heterosporous plant.

microsporocarp:

a receptacle containing microspores (a spore which in vascular plants gives rise to a male gametophyte).

mm:

millimetre(s).

monad:

a unit comprising single pollen grains which are not coherent or connate with other grains (cf. tetrad).

monadelphous:

having the staminal filaments united into a single set.

moniliform:

cylindrical but with regular, even, constrictions like a string of beads.

monocarpic:

flowering and fruiting once and then dying.

monochasium:

a cymose inflorescence in which the axis ends in a flower and further growth arises from a bud below the flower (cf. dichasium). When this growth pattern is repeated the inflorescence is termed a compound monochasium.

monoecious:

with male and female reproductive structures in separate flowers on the same plant.

monogeneric:

with one genus, usually of a family with a single genus.

monolete:

of a spore, bilaterial, having a single straight scar.

monophyletic:

a group (e.g. a genus or family) in which all component taxa are derived from the same ancestor.

monospecific:

with one species, e.g. of a genus with one species.

monothecal:

with a single chamber (cf. dithecal).

monotypic:

of one type, e.g. a genus with one species.

Mt:

Mount, Mountain.

mucro:

a sharp, abrupt terminal point, hence mucronate.

mucronulate:

with a small mucro.

multiseriate:

of a filament or hair, having multiple rows of cells (cf. uniseriate).

muricate:

rough with minute, short, hard projections on the surface.

muticous:

blunt, without a mucro.

mycorrhizal:

symbiotic association with a fungus and the roots, or other structures of a plant.

myrmecophilous:

ant-loving; providing structures liked by ants.

N

N.P.:

National Park.

N.S.W.:

New South Wales.

N.T.:

Northern Territory.

navicular:

boat-shaped, hence naviculate.

nectary:

a nectar-producing organ.

New World tropics:

Neotropics; tropical regions of the Americas.

node:

place on stem where one or more leaves or other organs arise.

nodose:

having swollen or bulbous nodes.

nodulose:

with small swellings.

nom. illeg.:

nomen illegitimum [Latin], illegitimate name under the rules of the International Code of Botanical Nomenclature.

nut:

a one-seeded, indehiscent fruit with a hard dry pericarp.

nutlet:

a small nut.

O

obclavate:

club-shaped and attached at the wider end.

obconic:

conical but attached at the narrow end.

obcordate:

cordate but attached at the narrow end.

obdeltoid:

deltoid but attached at the narrow end.

oblanceolate:

lanceolate but attached at the narrow end.

obloid:

of a solid body with an oblong section or outline.

obovate:

ovate but attached at the narrow end.

obovoid:

ovoid but attached at the narrow end.

obpyriform:

pear-shaped and attached at the broad end.

obtuse:

blunt, terminating in a broad angle.

ocrea:

stipule encircling the whole stem, e.g. as in members of Polygonaceae.

ocreola:

a small secondary leaf sheath.

Old World tropics:

Palaeotropics; tropical regions of Africa, Asia and Australia.

oogonium:

pl. oogonia; in algae and lower plants, the egg-bearing organ.

operculum:

a cap.

opposite:

where two organs arise from the same node on opposite sides of the axis.

orbicular:

circular.

ostiole:

the apex of a syconium; always closed off by two or more bracts. (adj. ostiolar)

ovary:

part of the gynoecium which encloses the ovules.

ovate:

egg-shaped in outline; if attached, then by the broad end.

ovoid:

of a solid body with an ovate section or ovate in outline.

ovule:

organ which after fertilisation develops into the seed.

P

p.p.:

pro parte [Latin], in part.

pachycaul:

with short, thick stems.

palea:

in the florets of grasses, the bract of a grass floret lying above and opposing the lemma and with it enclosing the androecium and gynoecium.

palmate:

divided deeply, with the individual lobes arising from the same point.

palmatifid:

divided deeply but not completely and the individual lobes arising at or about the same level.

palmatinerved:

with the main veins of a leaf radiating from a single basal point.

palmatisect:

divided down to the midrib, digitate.

panicle:

an inflorescence with compound branching, hence paniculate.

pantropical:

occurring throughout the tropical regions of the world.

papillate or papillose:

with minute, rounded, elongated projections on the surface.

paraphyletic:

a group (e.g. a genus) of taxa (e.g. species) derived from a common ancestor but not containing all descendants.

paraphyses:

in ferns the sterile stalks or filaments which may occur amongst the sporangia.

parietal placentation:

in which two or more placentas develop on the wall of a uniloculate ovary.

paripinnate:

of compound leaves lacking a terminal leaflet.

patent:

spreading, diverging from the axis at 90 degrees.

pectinate:

divided like a comb, into evenly spaced narrow segments.

pedicel:

stalk of a flower.

peduncle:

stalk of an inflorescence. (adj. pedunculate)

pellucid:

translucent.

peltate:

of a structure with axis inserted on the lower surface, not on the margin, e.g. of a petiole on a leaf.

penicillate:

like a tuft of hairs.

penninerved:

pinnately nerved.

pepo:

a berry with a leathery epicarp or rind as in a pumpkin, the interior pulpy and with many seeds.

perennial:

with a life-span of more than one year.

perfoliate:

of a sessile leaf or bract where the base extends around the stem, so that the stem appears to pass through the blade.

perianth:

the floral envelope, usually consisting of two whorls, the calyx and corolla; specifically where the segments (tepals) of the perianth are much alike but in whorls (e.g. Euphorbiaceae, Liliaceae), or quite similar and in a single whorl (e.g. Chenopodiaceae).

pericarp:

the outer wall of a fruit, which develops from the wall of the ovary and is composed of three layers ¬– the exocarp, mesocarp and endocarp.

periderm:

outer layer.

perigynous:

when the sepals, petals, and stamens are inserted around the superior ovary on the cup-like or tubular torus or receptacle; the stamens also appear perigynous when inserted on the corolla.

perine:

the outer spore wall in some species of fern.

perisperm:

nutritive tissue surrounding the embryo in some seeds, derived from the nucellus.

persistent:

e.g. of floral parts not shed after flowering.

petal:

a member of the corolla.

petaloid:

having the appearance of a petal.

petiole:

part of a leaf (the stalk) which bears a leaf blade (lamina), at the point of attachment to the branchlet usually ending in a swelling.

petiolule:

the stalk of a leaflet within a compound leaf.

phalange:

in Pandanaceae, an aggregation of several to many carpels or staminal filaments.

photosynthesis:

food-making process where the sun’s radiant energy is used to produce energy-rich compounds.

phyllanthoid:

of leaves distichous on lateral branchlets, giving the appearance of pinnate leaves.

pilose:

with soft, clearly separated but not sparse hairs.

pin flower:

the long-styled flower in distylous species, the stamens being situated well below the stigma (cf. thrum flower).

pinna:

pl. pinnae; the primary division of a compound leaf.

pinnate:

of a compound leaf when the leaflets are arranged along a rachis.

pinnately trifoliolate:

a compound leaf with three leaflets, with the terminal leaflet on an extension of the rachis.

pinnatifid:

cut deeply, but not to the midrib, into lobes.

pinnatisect:

cut down to the midrib.

pistil:

the united carpels of a syncarpous gynoecium or a single carpel of an apocarpous gynoecium.

pistillode:

a sterile pistil, often rudimentary.

pl.:

plural.

placenta:

tissue from which ovules arise.

placentation:

arrangement and position of the placentas in the ovary.

plicate:

folded back and forth longitudinally like a fan.

plumose:

feather-like.

plurinerved:

with several to many nerves.

pneumatophore:

a modified aerial root through which gases are exchanged.

pod:

a legume; a dry fruit dehiscing by two sutures and derived from a unicarpellate, unilocular ovary; found in Caesalpiniaceae, Fabaceae and Mimosaceae.

podium:

a foot.

pollen grain:

the young male gametophyte or micro-spores of seed plants.

pollination:

the transfer of pollen from an anther to a stigma.

polyad:

a compound pollen grain, more than four grains in each group (cf. monad, tetrad).

polygamodioecious:

of a species which is functionally dioecious but which has a few flowers of the opposite sex or a few bisexual flowers present at flowering.

polygamous:

bearing male, female and bisexual flowers on the same or different plants.

polypetalous:

corolla of several free petals.

polyphyletic:

a group (e.g. a genus or family) in which the component taxa are not derived from the same ancestor, i.e. they do not have the same evolutionary line.

polyploid:

having more than the usual two sets of chromosmes in the nucleus.

prickle:

a sharp outgrowth of the epidermis or bark as in Mimosa.

probract:

small, leaf-like structure at the base of an inflorescence in Cucurbitaceae, usually opposite a tendril.

procumbent:

of branches which extend laterally and ultimately trail along the ground without rooting at the nodes.

proliferous buds:

adventitious leaf buds which produce new plants.

prostrate:

lying flat on the ground.

protandrous:

in a flower the anthers shedding pollen before the stigma is receptive.

protogynous:

in a flower the stigma receptive before the anthers shed pollen.

protostele:

a simple and primitive type of stele with a solid central vascular core (adj. protostelic).

pruinose:

with a waxy or powdery bloom on the surface

pseudo-:

false

puberulous:

covered with minute, soft, erect hairs.

pubescent:

covered with short, soft, erect hairs.

pulvinus:

the swollen base of a petiole or petiolule.

punctate:

marked with dots.

punctulate:

marked with minute dots.

pustulate:

with small pimple-like or blister-like projections.

pyrene:

the stone (bony endocarp and seed) of a drupe or drupelet.

pyriform:

pear-shaped.

Q

Qld:

Queensland.

quadrate:

squared in cross section.

R

raceme:

an inflorescence consisting of an unbranched axis bearing stalked flowers.

rachilla:

pl. rachillae; the secondary axis of a compound leaf or inflorescence.

rachis:

the primary axis of a compound leaf or inflorescence.

radical:

leaves arranged in a rosette and arising apparently directly from the root.

ramified:

branched.

ramiflorous:

producing flowers on the main branches.

ray:

of sedges, a stem with an inflorescence bearing one or more spikelets.

receptacle:

the part of the floral axis bearing the floral organs.

reflexed:

bent sharply downwards or backwards.

reniform:

kidney-shaped.

resinous:

with resin; resin-covered.

reticulate:

when the nerves or veins cross each other like the meshes of a net.

retrorse:

pointing backwards or downwards, usually of hairs.

retuse:

of an apex which is blunt and slightly notched.

revolute:

rolled under, as in a leaf where the margins are rolled under towards the midrib.

rheophyte:

a woody plant which grows primarily in seasonal water courses.

rhizoids:

organs resembling and functioning as roots (e.g. in Utricularia).

rhizome:

an underground stem, by which a plant may reproduce vegetatively, hence rhizomatous.

rhomboidal:

like a rhomboid (with equal, parallel sides, but two corners less than 90 degrees and two more than 90 degrees).

rosette:

a spirally arranged cluster of leaves at ground level from the much reduced stem of some plants.

rostrum:

a beak.

rosulate:

in a rosette.

rotate:

wheel-shaped; in reference to a gamophyllous corolla with a short tube and a spreading almost flat and circular limb.

rugose:

deeply wrinkled.

S

s. lat.:

sensu lato [Latin], in a broad sense.

s. str.:

sensu stricto [Latin], in a narrow sense.

S.A.:

South Australia.

saccate:

with pouched projections.

sagittate:

shaped like an arrowhead, the basal lobes acute and directed downwards.

scaberulous:

finely scabrous.

scabrous:

scabrid; rough to touch.

scalariform:

with ladder-like markings.

scape:

a leafless or almost leafless peduncle or floral axis arising more or less directly from the rootstock, often above a rosette.

scarious:

thin, dry, membranous, not green.

schizocarp:

a dry fruit which at maturity splits into several often one-seeded portions or mericarps.

sclerenchyma:

hard, woody tissue of cells with thickened walls, e.g. surrounding the seed in drupaceous fruit.

scorpioid cyme:

of a cymose inflorescence, branching alternately on one side and then the other, with the main axis coiled like the tail of a scorpion.

secund:

with all the flowers of an inflorescence crowded to one side.

seed:

a ripened ovule consisting of a coat surrounding an embryo, with or without albumen; the propagating organ of the flowering plants and gymnosperms (i.e. the seed plants).

sepal:

a member of the calyx.

sepaloid:

having the appearance of sepals.

septate-nodose, septate-nodulose:

the lattice-like appearance of the nervature of some sedge leaves and stems caused by collapsed air cavities in the mesophyll between consecutive vascular bundles where these cavities are divided transversely by small partitions or septa.

septicidal:

of a mature capsule, splitting at the junction of the septum and outer walls.

septifragal:

of a fruit in which the valves or backs of the carpels break away from the dissepiment.

septum:

pl. septa; a partition, hence septate.

seriate:

in rows or whorls.

sericeous:

silky to touch, covered with silky hairs.

serrate:

toothed like a saw.

serrulate:

finely serrate.

sessile:

without any stalk.

simple:

of leaves, possessing a single leaf blade which may be deeply dissected but not divided into separate leaflets.

sinuate:

with smooth, regular wave-like indentations of the margin, but shallower than lobed.

sinus:

the gap between two lobes of a leaf or other flattened organ.

sorus:

pl. sori; in ferns, a cluster of sporangia.

sp., spp.:

species (singular, plural).

spadix:

a spike with flowers more or less sunk in tissue, usually enclosed in a spathe.

spathe:

a large bract which sheaths an inflorescence as in Araceae, hence spathaceous and spatheate.

spathulate:

spoon-shaped in outline.

spike:

an inflorescence consisting of an undivided floral axis, bearing sessile flowers.

spikelet:

in grasses, a discrete part of an inflorescence consisting of two basal and opposing glumes and above them an unbranched floral axis bearing one or more florets; in sedges, an inflorescence or discrete part of an inflorescence consisting of an unbranched floral axis bearing few ,to numerous glumes and reproductive parts.

spine:

a stiff, pointed structure derived through modification of an organ such as a stipule, branch or petiole.

spinescent:

becoming spine-like.

spinulose:

bearing small spines.

sporangiate:

bearing spores or pollen.

sporangium:

pl. sporangia; a spore case; the organ in which spores are produced.

sporocarp:

a receptacle containing sporangia.

sporophyll:

a specialised leaf or leaf-like organ that bears sporangia.

sporophyte:

a plant or phase that bears the spores formed during the sexual reproduction cycle (cf. gametophyte).

sq.:

square.

stamen:

pollen-bearing organ, usually comprising a stalk (filament) and anther.

staminode:

a sterile stamen, often reduced and lacking anthers.

standard:

vexillum; the adaxial or upper petal of a flower of the Fabaceae, usually the largest petal.

stele:

the vascular system of rhizome or stem, together with leaf traces.

stellate or stellulate:

star-shaped.

stemonophore:

in Pandanaceae, a stamen-bearing organ.

stigma:

the area receptive to pollen at or near the distal end of the style.

stipe:

a stalk, hence stipitate.

stipel:

pl. stipellae; a small appendage growing at the base of the leaflet-stalk (petiolule) in a compound leaf.

stipules:

two small appendages growing at the base of the leaf-stalk or petiole.

stolon:

an above-ground stem, either prostrate or arched, which produces roots and shoots at the nodes.

stramineous:

straw-coloured.

striae:

striations; fine, parallel, longitudinal markings or grooves, hence striate.

strigose:

of indumentum or hairs that are coarse and more or less straight.

striolate:

finely striate.

strobilus:

pl. strobili; a cone-like body consisting of sporophylls crowded along axis, as in Lycopodiaceae and Selaginellaceae.

style:

that part of the gynoecium connecting the stigma with the ovary.

stylopodium:

a disc-like enlargement at the base of the style.

subglaucous:

barely glaucous.

suborbicular:

almost round.

subsp.:

subspecies.

subulate:

tapering very gradually from base to apex and often sharply pointed, but not as fine as a needle.

succulent:

fleshy in texture.

superior:

of an ovary, with perianth inserted beneath the ovary (cf. half-inferior, inferior).

syconium:

pl. syconia; an inflorescence of Ficus.

sympetalous:

with united petals; gamopetalous.

synangium:

pl. synangia; in flowering plants, a group of fruits fused into a single structure; in ferns, a group of fused sporangia.

syncarpous:

with an ovary, pistil, or fruit composed of two or more united carpels.

synsepalous:

with united sepals; gamophyllous.

T

Tas.:

Tasmania.

taxon:

pl. taxa; a group or category (e.g. genus or species) in a system of classification of organisms.

tendrils:

filiform organs by which climbing plants cling to some object within reach, arising by modification of stipules, leaves or branches.

tepal:

part of a perianth where these are similar in size, form and colouration.

terete:

cylindrical but circular in cross section.

terminal:

at the apex.

testa:

the outer wall of a seed.

tetrad:

a unit comprising pollen grains coherent or connate in clusters of four (cf. monad, polyad).

tetrahedral:

having four sides.

tetrasporangiate:

of an anther with four sporangia (pollen sacs) which are positioned in two pairs.

thallus:

the vegetative body of a plant that is not differentiated into organs such as stems and leaves, e.g. the gametophytes of ferns.

theca:

pl. thecae; a cavity formed when two sporangia share a common region of dehiscence; most anthers have two thecae.

thorn:

a spine.

thrum flower:

the short-styled flower in distylous species, the stamens being situated well above the stigma (cf. pin flower).

thyrse:

a paniculate inflorescence consisting of a primary axis of indeterminate growth with lateral compound dichasia, hence thyrsoid.

tomentose:

of hairs when they are closely matted and short.

tomentum:

an indumentum of closely matted short hairs.

Top End:

that part of the N.T. north of 15° S, i.e. just below Mattaranka.

torulose:

with irregular swellings at close intervals; cylindrical but the diameter varying regularly.

torus:

part of floral axis from which arise the sepals, petals, stamens and pistil; receptacle.

trailing:

with long prostrate stems.

trichome:

a short filament of cells; a ‘hair’ from a plant.

trichotomous:

dividing almost equally into three parts.

trigonous:

triangular in cross section; having three rounded angles and three convex faces.

trilete:

of a spore, with a three-pronged scar.

triploid:

of chromosome number, i.e. three-times the haploid number.

triquetrous:

three-angled, the angles usually sharp; having three acute angles with three concave faces.

trullate:

trowel- or diamond-shaped but with the widest axis below the middle and with straight margins.

truncate:

ending abruptly, as though cut off.

tuber:

a storage organ formed by the swelling of an underground root or stem.

tubercle:

a small irregularly rounded protuberance, wart-like.

turbinate:

top-shaped, obconical.

turgid:

swollen.

twiner:

a plant rooted in the ground and climbing primarily by twisting of the stem apices.

type, type specimen:

in taxonomy a designated specimen which sets the application of a plant name.

U

umbel:

an inflorescence where the divergent branches or rays start from the same point; in a simple umbel each ray bears one flower.

umbelliform:

like an umbel.

umbonate:

rounded with a projection in the centre or from the side.

uncinate:

hooked at the tip.

unilateral:

with stamens grouped on one side of the style.

unilocular:

having only one internal cavity.

uniseriate:

of a filament or hair, having a single row of cells (cf. multiseriate).

unisexual:

with only male or only female reproductive organs.

united:

joined together, in whole or in part.

unithecal:

of an anther which at maturity forms a single pollen sac (theca); as in bisporangiate anthers in which the two sporangia share a common region of dehiscence.

urceolate:

urn-shaped.

utricle:

a bag; usually referring to a 1-seeded, usually small, bladdery fruit.

V

valvate:

with the edges meeting but not overlapping.

var.:

variety.

velum:

a membranous flap-like envelope which may cover, at least in part, the sporangium.

velutinous:

velvety; dense, soft, nearly erect hairs.

venation:

the disposition of veins, especially in a leaf.

vernation:

the arrangement of unexpanded leaves in a bud.

vernicose:

varnished.

verrucose:

warty.

versatile:

attached so as to allow free movement.

verticillate:

whorled.

vesicular:

bladder-like.

vestigial:

poorly formed; the remaining trace or remnant of an organ.

vestiture:

a covering, usually hairs in the collective sense.

Vic.:

Victoria.

villous:

long, soft, more or less erect hairs, moderately dense.

viscid:

sticky.

viviparous:

germination of seed before being shed from the parent plant.

W

W.A.:

Western Australia.

whorl:

where three or more organs arise from the same node.

wing:

the lateral petals of a flower of the Fabaceae which lie alongside the keel.

Z

zygomorphic:

with a single lateral plane of symmetry, especially in reference to the corolla, as in flowers of Fabaceae.